Video instructions and help with filling out and completing Can Form 843 Periods

Instructions and Help about Can Form 843 Periods

We in the midst of the laughs attempted to look at the 7th century last time as a turning point in the history of the period that we're dealing with the post Roman world the early Middle Ages certainly among the major shifts was the rise of Islam and the consequent radical changes in the Mediterranean territories particularly of course the areas conquered from the eastern Roman Empire by Byzantium namely Syria Palestine Egypt and eventually North Africa the 7th century therefore changed the shape of the Byzantine Empire and so its orientation as well as culture here I have a kind of periodization we've spoken about Justinian's expansion very shortly after his death there begins what seems in retrospect at least in part to be a reaction to Imperial overreach Imperial overreach is a phenomenon seen throughout history described most memorably perhaps by our own Paul Kennedy the tendency for empires simply in order to protect themselves or order to fill fulfill their ambitions to get too large for their own ability to hold on to their possessions this is an economic problem a logistical problem a resource problem and even a cultural problem in general it's hard to say what provokes the crisis that is with the Roman Empire as with the abbasids we can say oh well it was too big on the other hand it was too big and did just fine for centuries in the case the opposit Empire maybe not centuries but 150 years which is these things go is a pretty long time here however we're talking about something that is much more obviously related to some kind of overreach Justinian formed his expanded Empire which is the first map in the handout and merely a few years after his death had started to unravel you'll recall that we said that he had at great cost conquered Italy after the easy conquest of North Africa this looked like it would be easy as well but in fact while North Africa occupied by the Vandals fell within a year or two Italy took 20 years to rest from the Ostrogoths and the peninsula was devastated and in a radical economic decline when Byzantium took over a mere three years after Justinian's death in 568 Italy was invaded by yet another barbarian tribe the Lombards the Lombards did not take over all of it the Byzantine Empire the Eastern Roman Empire managed to handle Don to Sicily much of southern Italy the East Coast particularly the capital of the Byzantine province Ravenna but nevertheless the Lombards occupied most of the peninsula and as we'll discuss in a moment other disasters piled up in this period that I have just called contraction but it's not just a question of the of the Empire getting smaller it's really a radical crisis and an ongoing crisis with the appearance of many enemies and the radical shrinking of the borders of this empire so again look at the Empire in 565 it's making a good attempt at Justinian's to mimic the Roman Empire at the beginning of our course at its height in the third century it doesn't have North Western Europe but it has most of the Mediterranean and to the degree that the Roman Empire was as we with fatiguing repetition have said a Mediterranean centered Empire this Empire of Justinian's does a good job of restoring that Mediterranean orientation if you look at the second map during this period of what the author of this book that I took the map from Halden H al do n calls the process of devastation you can see how much has been lost the Empire at this point consists mostly of Anatolia a little bit of Italy a few islands even the Balkans is mostly occupied by Slavs and bull gars there then follows a period of reconstruction of the stabilization of borders of taking back some lands in the Balkans and in Anatolia from the Arabs in Anatolia and from various groups in the Balkans this is also the period of the icon of plastic and emperors and then finally a a an expansion of the Byzantine Empire the Golden Age of the Byzantine Empire is this period after the settlement of iconoclasm in 843 until the appearance of a new anime the Seljuk Turks who won a devastating victory in 1071 and begin a process of what ultimately but in this case ultimately means 350 years what ultimately would be the final crisis for the Byzantine Empire which would be extinguished by the Turks in 1453 so if you look at map number three the Byzantine Empire around the Year 1000 ignore Bulgaria for the time being that is a separate Kingdom and we're going to talk about it soon this is a compact Empire compared to that of Justinian it is not in control of the Mediterranean it has two bases really the Balkans and Asia Minor and it has a little bit of territory in Italy still but this Empire made logistic sense was never easy to keep together nevertheless it was stable had enough money for its substantial military expenses and even to create a kind of cultural efflorescence so here we have a story not merely of survival but of survival adaptation and expansion and that's what I want to discuss with you today oh the reason we're doing this is because this is part of early medieval history we've talked about the legacy of the Roman Empire a three-part kind of legacy in our formulation on Wednesday we'll start talking again about Europe northern Europe and the degree to which Charlemagne in particular is a self-conscious heir to the Roman Empire he revives the title of Roman Emperor in the case of the East these people have never abandoned the title of Roman Emperor and indeed the key thing about the byzantine crisis in contrast to the crisis of the West